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Sunday, October 16, 2011

CROSS CUT IMAGES OF RED SANDERS WOOD

PURPLISH BROWN COLOR



RIPPLE REFLECTION OF SURFACE


WOOD SCRAPS OF RED SANDERS

POWDER OF RED SANDERS

HORIZONTAL CROSS SECTION

SAWN POWDER

Saturday, October 15, 2011

CONTACT DETAILS

SREENIVAS REDDY
KURNOOL-518001,
ANDHRA PRADESH, SOUTH INDIA
MOBILE:9885937269 FIXED LINE:
08518-253869
EMAIL:bestwood.redsanders@rocketmail.com
exotic-redsanders@hotmail.co.in
Skype: zitan-srakula3

Thursday, October 06, 2011

INDIAN RED SANDERS INFO DATA

INDIAN RED SANDERS-PTEROCARPUS SANTALINUS-ZITAN INFORMATION
INTRODUCTION: Red Sanders-(Pterocarpus Santalinus L.f) belongs to the family of Fabaceae.is an endangered and endemic taxon in the Eastern Ghats of India. Red Sanders is renowned for its characteristic timber of exquisite color, beauty and superlative technical qualities ranks amongst the finest luxury wood in the world.
1. TAXONOMY:
A. Scientific Classification:
Domain:             Eukaryota  - Whittaker & Margulis,1978
Kingdom:Plantae:Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
Subkingdom:     Viridaeplantae  - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
Phylum :            Magnoliophyta  - Sinnott, 1935 Ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Flowering Plants
Subphylum:       Euphyllophytina
Infraphylum:      Radiatopses  - Kenrick & Crane, 1997
Class:                Magnoliopsida  - Brongniart, 1843 - Dicotyledons
Subclass:           Rosidae  - Takhtajan, 1967
Super order:      Fabanae  - R. Dahlgren Ex Reveal, 1993
Order:               Fabales  - Bromhead, 1838
Family:              Fabaceae  - Lindley, 1836 - Bean Family
Subfamily:         Faboideae 
Tribe:                Dalbergieae 
Genus:               Pterocarpus  - N.J. Jacquin, 1763, nom. cons.
Specific epithet: santalinus - L.f.
Botanical name: Pterocarpus santalinus L.f. 
               
Synonyms:  Pterocarpus lignum, Santalum rubrum, Lingoum santalinum (L. f.)
                   Kuntze Rojo, J. P.972. Pterocarpus (Leguminosae Papilionaceae).
                   Phanerog. Monogr. 5: 1119.


Homonyms:Pterocarpus santalinus Buch.-Ham. ex Wall. A Numerical List of Dried
                  Specimens n.5842. 1831. (Numer. List) Pterocarpus santalinus
                  Blanco Flora de Filipinas561.1837. (Fl. Filip.).
Ayurvedic name:    Rakta chandan రక్తచందనము
Unani name:    Sandal surkh
Trade name:    Red sanders
B. Vernacular Names
Indian Languages:
Bengali : Lalchandan, Raktachandan
GujaratiRatanjali
Hindi:      Lalchandan, Lāl Chandan, Rakhta Chandan
Kannada: Agaru, Honne, Kempugandha, Patranga, Raktashandana
Malayalam:Patrangam, Raktashandanam, Tilaparnni
Nepalese:  Rakta Candan
Sanskrit  :  Agarugandha, Arka, Chandana, Harichandana, Kshudrachandana, Kuchandana,
                  Kushikam, Patranga, Rakhta Chandanah, Raktachandana, Tilaparni,Valgu
Tamil:        Atti, Kusandanam, Picanam, Pidagattam, Salliyam, Sandanavengai, Sandauam,
                  Sensandakkattai, Sensandanam, Sivappu, Sivappuchandanam
Telugu  :    Agarugandhamu, Chandanum, Ettachandamu, Kuchandanamu,
                  Raktachandanamu,Raktagandhamu, Shandanamu, ఎర్రచందనము
                                 
Foreign Languages:
Burmese:    Nasani, Sandaku
China:         Zitan
Danish  :     Red Sandelved, Sandeltrae
Dutch    :    Rood Sandelhout, Sandelboom
English  :    Almug, Red Sandalwood, Red Sandas, Red Sanders, Red Sanderswood,
                   Red Saunders,Red-Sandalwood, Ruby Wood, Sandalwood, Saunderswood
French  :     Santal Rouge
German:     Caliaturholz, Rotes Sandelholz, Rothes Sandelholz, Rothes Santelholz
Hawaiian:   Lal Chandan, Ragat Chandan, Rukhto Chandan, Undum
Indonesian:Kayu merah
Italian:        Sandalo Rosso
Malay:        Cendana janggi
Portuguese:Sandalo Vermelho
Sinhala  :    Rath Handun
Spanish :    Sándalo Rojo
Tagalog:     Naga, Narra


C.MORPHOLOGY
          The flowers of the species are yellow, densely arranged in simple or sparingly branched racemes. Flowering occurs from February to April, after new leaves sprout.  Pods are formed rapidly but get ripened in next February–March. Pods are obliquely orbicular, 3–4 cm in diameter, including the wing, and gradually narrow down into a short stipe. There is only one seed per pod, which is 1–1.5 cm in length and reddish brown in color [2].
Red Sanders is a moderate-sized deciduous tree with clear trunk and dense rounded crown. It attains a height of 10 m and a girth of 0.9–1.5 m under favorable growing conditions. The blackish-brown bark is fissured and resembles crocodile skin. The inner bark, when injured or cut, oozes red colored ‘santolin’ dye. The wood is extremely hard and dark red in color, with a specific gravity of 1.109. The leaves are imparipinnate, petiolate, and alternate. They are simple at seedling stage but trifoliate or rarely pentafoliate later [1].

D. PHYSIOLOGY
A deciduous medium-sized tree. Stem erect and dense, rounded crown. Bark blackish brown, exuding a copious red gum. Branch lets drooping, glabrous. Leaves imparipinnate, leaflets three, rarely four or five, broadly ovate or orbicular, apex obtuse or emarginated, margin entire, shiny and glabrous. Flowers yellow, bisexual, auxiliary, in simple or sparingly branched racemes and fragrant. Pods obliquely orbicular and flat. Seeds 1or 2, reddish-brown, with a smooth leathery testa.

RED SANDERS LEAF'S(SMALL LEAF SPECIES)

FLOWERS OF RED SANDERS

RED SANDERS SEED PODS


OOZING GUM FROM RED SANDERS TREE


CROCODILE SKIN LIKE BARK OF RED SANDERS
  
E. BIOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS:
A moderate sized deciduous tree with erect bole an dense rounded crown, conspicuous by its blackish brown bark resembling the skin of ‘CROCODILE ’divided into rectangular plates by deep vertical and horizontal cracks. A blaze on the bark exposes the white colored sapwood which gradually turns red due to exudation of red gummy juice. Heartwood is deep red in color which on exposure turns to scarlet red (Maturity - 25- 30 years. Tree can fell, if the basal diameter is 0.6-1.0m. Heart wood hardening Starts from 18th year and complete by 25-30 years).Population level flowering occurs during April-June with individuals flowering intermittently for a period of 3 weeks sometimes resulting in a mass blooming. Pods from rapidly but ripen only the next February-March. Pollinator activity is limited to moonlit nights and early morning hours.
The natural fruit set is very low about 6% comparative to the quantum of flowers, with xenogamous fruits alone carrying to maturity and dropping of autogamaous and geitonogamous. The various factors could be low possibility of energy investment due to the climatic and natural limiting factors during seeding. Progressive elimination of poor sees arising out of self pollination, less probability of out crossing due to limitations of population size, pollinator availability etc. Population size thus appears to be crucial importance for continued survival. The pods fall in May and germinate with the onset of monsoons in July. The species exhibits the temperament of struggling gambler with the shoot dying back many times due to drought, browsing, competition from gambler etc.till the time the root gains vitality enough to propel the shoot upwards fast in a heliophilous mode. The tree starts shedding its leaves by early January and by the end of February becomes totally leafless. Well before other trees of the area, by early April, the tree puts out young leaves.
F. HABITAT:
Habit & Habitat:  A medium sized deciduous tree distributed in KADAPA, KURNOOL, CHITTOOR, & NELLORE districts in Andhra Pradesh and adjoining areas of Tamil Nadu.
 Ecology: Occurring in dry deciduous forest.
  • Large deciduous tree
  • Bark deeply cleft into rectangular plates, wood dark-red.
  • Leaves 3-foliolate
  • Leaflets ovate, rounded at both ends, slightly emarginated, appraised.
  • Grey hairy below.
  • Flowers yellow in auxiliary and terminal racemes.
  • Standard ovate.
  • Pod sub orbicular, style brought near to the basal corner, narrowly winged, 1-seeded.
  • Blooms once in a year during dry season from late March to late May
2. PROPERTIES
 a. Anatomical properties
Vessels: Wood diffuse-porous. Vessels in multiples, commonly short (23 vessels) radial rows. Two distinct vessel diameter classes absent. Average tangential vessel diameter 115230295 m. Average number of vessels/mm 12. Perforation plates simple. Intervessel pits alternate, average diameter (vertical) (8)912(13) m, vestured. Vessel-ray pits with distinct borders or with reduced borders or apparently simple, similar to intervessel pits, rounded or angular. Other deposits in heartwood vessels present (orange brown).
Tracheids and fibres: Fibres of medium wall thickness. Average fibre length 103513801660 m. Fibre pits mainly restricted to radial walls, simple to minutely bordered.
Axial parenchyma: Axial parenchyma banded. Axial parenchyma apotracheal and paratracheal. Apotracheal axial parenchyma diffuse-in-aggregates (short tangential lines without contact to vessels). Paratracheal axial parenchyma aliform and confluent. Aliform parenchyma winged. Axial parenchyma fusiform and as strands. Average number of cells per axial parenchyma strand 2.
Rays: Rays 1217 per tangential mm, exclusively uniseriate. Height of large rays up to 500 m. Rays composed of a single cell type. Homocellular ray cells procumbent.
Storied structures: Storied structure present, all rays storied, axial parenchyma storied, vessel elements storied, fibres storied.
Secretary structures: Intercellular canals absent.
Mineral inclusions: Crystals present, prismatic, located in axial parenchyma cells. Crystal-containing axial parenchyma cells chambered. Number of crystals per cell or chamber one. Crystal containing cells of normal size, or enlarged (idioblasts). Silica not observed.
B.Physical Properties
Weight : 76 lb.per c.ft. (air dry)
Gross Structure : A diffuse porous wood, Growth rings distinct, 4-5 per cm. Vessels/pores moderately large, just visible to eye, few to moderately few (3-6 per mm2), more or less evenly distributed solitary or in short radial multiples of 2-3, round in outline, frequently filled with reddish brown gummy deposits, vessel lines district on the longitudinal surfaces. Parenchyma/ soft tissues distinct only under hand lens as numerous narrow bands connecting the vessels, some times aciform or in long lateral extensions and also as a fine interrupted lines delimiting growth rings. Rays fine to very fine, closely spaced, uniformly distributed, ripple marks present on tangential surface.
YELLOW FLOWERS IN  AUXILIARY & TERMINAL RACEMES.
Minutes Structure : Vessels up to 207m (mean 14.0+/-3m) in diameter, perforation plate simple, intravascular pitting alternate, oval and vestured, 7-8m in diameter, pits leading to rays and axial parenchyma are more or less similar, vessel members 133-249m. (Mean 196+/- 1m) in length, truncate or abruptly tailed, gummy deposits present. Parenchyma Para tracheal, narrowly confluent or aciform with short or long lateral extensions, sometimes diffuse as few scattered cells, strands composed of 2-6 cells, gummy in filtration present fibers circular to angular and irregularly aligned in cross section, average maximum diameter and wall thickness 18m and 5m respectively, pits simple, confined to the radial walls. Rays 1-2 seriate (mostly uniseriate), 13 per mm (t), homogeneous, 15m in width and up to 9cells of 205m in height, composed of procumbent cells.
C.IDENTIFICATION
Physical Properties:
1. Heart wood Red to Purple brown upon exposure turning dark brown
    or black.
2. Specific gravity of Red Sanders (Pterocarpus Santalinus) and some of
    the look alikes are given below:


Sl.No
Species
Specific Gravity
1
Pterocarpus Santalinus (Red Sanders)
         0.97
2
Pterocarpus dalbergeoides(Paduk)
         0.62
3
Pterocarpus indicus(Bijasal)
         0.67
4
Dalbergia latifolia(Rosewood)
         0.66


* Water extract is light Orange brown and fluoresces with a light blue
    color
1. THE UNDRESSES LOGS EXHIBIT A ROUGH BARK SOMEWHAT
     RESEMBLING CROCODILIAN SCALES
2. UNDER THE BARK, A WHITE COLOURED SAPWOOD EXISTS
3. UPON DRESSING REVEALS A DEEP SCARLET COLOURED HEARTWOOD
4. THE WOOD ANATOMY OF RED SANDERS AND THE LOOK ALIKE
     SPECIES

E.MECHANICAL PROPERTIES:
Pterocarpus santalinus L. wood is extremely strong and very tough timber.

F.CHEMICAL PROPERTIES:

Chemical
 Part
 Low
 ppm
 High
 ppm
 Reference
ACETYL-OLEANOLIC-ACID
Wood


DUKE1992A
ACETYLOLEANOLALDEHYDE
Wood


DUKE1992A
BETA-AMYRIN
Plant


DUKE1992A
BETA-AMYRONE
Plant


DUKE1992A
BETA-EUDESMOL
Wood


DUKE1992A
BETA-SITOSTEROL
Plant


DUKE1992A
BETULIN
Bark


DUKE1992A
CEDROL
Wood
Essen
Oil



DUKE1992A
CRYPTOMERIDIOL
Wood


DUKE1992A
DESOXYSANTALIN
Wood


DUKE1992A
EO
Wood


DUKE1992A
EPILUPEOL
Bark


DUKE1992A
ERYTHRODIOL
Plant


DUKE1992A
EUDES-4(15)-ENE-2,11-DIOL
Plant


DUKE1992A
GALLIC-ACID
Wood


DUKE1992A
HOMOPTEROCARPIN
Wood


DUKE1992A
ISOPTEROCARPIN
Wood


DUKE1992A
ISOPTEROCARPOLONE
Wood


DUKE1992A
LIQUIRITIGENIN
Wood


DUKE1992A
LUP-20(29)-EN-2ALPHA,3BETA-DIOL
Bark


DUKE1992A
LUPENONE
Bark


DUKE1992A
LUPEOL
Bark


DUKE1992A
PTEROCARPDIOLONE
Wood


DUKE1992A
PTEROCARPIN
Wood


DUKE1992A
PTEROCARPOL
Wood


DUKE1992A
PTEROCARPTRIOL
Wood


DUKE1992A
PTEROSTILBENE
Wood


DUKE1992A
SANTAL
Wood


DUKE1992A
SANTALIN
Wood


DUKE1992A
SANTALIN-A
Wood


DUKE1992A
SANTALIN-B
Wood


DUKE1992A
STIGMASTEROL
Plant


DUKE1992A


SMALL LEAF VARIETY OF RED SANDERS WITH SEED PODS
3. UTILAZATION:
A. Medicinal Uses:
  • A decoction of the fruit is used as an astringent tonic in chronic dysentery. An infusion of the wood is used in the control of diabetes.
  • The wood of P. santalinus is considered astringent, tonic and diaphoretic.
  • A paste of the wood is used to give cooling effect, applied externally for inflammations and head-ache.
  • It is useful in bilious affections and skin diseases.
  • The wood is bitter in taste with a flavor, anthelminthic, aphrodisiac, and alexiteric useful in vomiting, thirst, eye diseases, cures diseases of the blood vata and kapha, mental aberrations and ulcers.
  • The wood is in treating headache, skin diseases, fever, boils,and scorpion sting and to improve sight.
  • The wood and fruit is used in treating diaphoretics, bilious infections and chronic dysentery.
  • Heart wood is known to possess isoflavone glucosidessavinin, calocedrin and triterpene.
  • The lignan isolated from the heartwood is known to inhibit tumor necrosis factor alpha production and T-cell proliferation.
  • The heart wood contains isoflavone glucosides and two anti-tumour lignans, viz., savinin and calocedrin.
  • A triterpene is reported from the callus of stem cuttings.
  • Ethanol extract of stem bark at 0.25 g/kg body weight was reported to possess anti-hyperglycaemic activity.
  • The stem bark extract was shown to contain maximum activity against Enterobacter aerogenes, Alcaligenes faecalis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus vulgaris, Bacillus cereus, Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus.
  • The leaf extract showed maximum activity against Escherichia coli, Alcaligenes faecalis, Enterobacter aerogenes and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.  
  • The ethanol extracts of Pterocarpus santalinus L.f. (Fabaceae) at dose of 50-250 mg/kg showed gastroprotective effect in reserpine-induced, pyloric-ligated experimental rats.
B.FURNITURES
The wood has historically been valued in China, particularly during the Ming and Qing periods, referred to in Chinese as zitan (紫檀) and spelt tzu-t'an by earlier western authors such Gustav Ecke, who introduced classical Chinese furniture to the west[3]. It has been one of the most prized woods for millennia. King Solomon was given tribute logs of Almug in Sanskrit valgu(valgu means'very beauitiful'), valgum by the Queen of Sheba[7] Due to its slow growth and rarity, furniture made from zitan is difficult to find and can be expensive [7]. Between the 17th and 19th centuries in China the rarity of this wood led to the reservation of zitan furniture for the Qing dynasty imperial household. Chandan, the Indian word for Red Sandalwood which is Tzu-t’an, are linked by etymology. The word tan in Chinese is a perfect homonym of “tan”, meaning cinnabar, vermillion and the cognition is suggested by the interchange of chan for oriflamme, the vermilion ensign of the ancients. Chinese traders would have been familiar with Chandan. Tzu-t’an then is the ancient Chinese interpretation for the Indian word chandan for red sandalwood.

CHINESE CARVED FURNITURE

TEAPOY MADE FROM ZITAN(RS)
CHINESE CHAIR MADE FROM RED SANDERS

CHINESE TABLE MADE FROM RED SANDERS
MING DYNASTY CARVINGS OF RED SANDERS

CHINESE FURNITURE MAKERS AT WORK -1


CHINESE FURNITURE MAKERS AT WORK-2

CHINESE FURNITURE MAKERS AT WORK 3


ZITAN BOX IN PEACH SHAPE